Thursday, March 21, 2013

SC to hear PIL on caste/region/religion-based Army recruitment

On March 18, 2013, the Supreme Court listed afresh for hearing a plea seeking abolition of recruitment in the Army on the basis of caste, region and religion claiming it was violative of the Constitutional right to equal opportunity in public employment. 
"Have you (petitioner) supplied the copy of the petition to he Solicitor General (SG). Give the copy to the SG. List on April 10," a bench of justices K S Radhakrishnan and Dipak Misra said.

The court was hearing the plea of I S Yadav, a doctor hailing from Rewari in Haryana, seeking abolition of Indian Army's recruitment criteria for its duty soldiers on the grounds of caste, region and religion.

Yadav, in his plea, submitted that unlike Air Force and Navy, there is "discriminatory classification" for recruitment on caste/religion/region basis and submitted that a national policy of recruitment be formed in the Army. 

"At recruitment stage there cannot be caste-cum- religion-cum-region based classification. There cannot be specific recruitment on the basis of caste, region and religion to various regiments like Maratha Regiment, Rajasthan Rifles, Dogra Regiment, Jat Regiment, etc. This classification of the army is a British legacy and is not sanctioned by any law made by Parliament," he said. 

"In Indian Air Force and in Indian Navy there is no such discriminatory classification of Squadrons/Fleets based on caste/religion/region and hence recruitment in Indian Air Force and Indian Navy is on all-India, all-class basis. Yet in Army alone there are caste/religion/region based regiments," the petitioner said. 

Sunday, March 10, 2013

Full Text of leaked Report of Fact Finding Team of Press Council of India on Pressure on Media in Bihar

Sources have revealed that the text of the fact finding report of the Press Council of India (PCI)'s three member team which awaits adoption by all the members of the PCI is slightly different from the one that got leaked out on Febriary 12, 2013.  

Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar on February 20, 2013 criticized Justice Markandey Katju, Chairman, Press Council of India (PCI) for his remarks lack of press freedom in the state and trashed the fact finding report of the three member team of PCI in the State Assembly. He said, “I am particularly baffled at the PCI chief’s remarks equating me with Ghananand, the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty, it is particularly objectionable as the comments were made to demean me.” He added, “Justice Katju simply did not show respect to the constitutional post or his distinguished family background by comparing me with with Ghananand, whose fall led to collapse of the Nanda dynasty.” 

The Chairman of the PCI had constituted a three member FFT headed by Rajeev Ranjan Nag and comprising Arun Kumar and Kalyan Barooah,both member PCI on February 24, 2102 to look into the complaints that he received during his visit to the State and submit its findings The text of the report of the fact finding team team that got leaked is as under.

Full Text of the Report of Fact Finding Team

History of journalism in Bihar can be written in golden letters, as the language media in the state played a stellar role. Known more for their courageous writings, journalists of the state played a leading role during the freedom struggle of India. It would not be out of place to mention the contribution of Bihar after independence in terms of its courageous and responsible journalism.
Bihar has been serving as leading light for years for the whole country. Despite the lowest per capita income and illiteracy in citizens, Bihar has been recording largest sale of Hindi newspapers and magazines for the last sixty years. Media organisations get most important feedbacks from Bihar. The reason behind this is the high journalistic quality and its readers having elegant taste and temperament about the value system traditionally prevalent in journalism of the state. Journalists working in the State contributed a lot to reach up to this standard.
The people of the state are also known for their penchant for knowledge. The tradition is still in existence and can be seen everywhere in the State. This tradition gave rise to many social
and political movements like freedom movement prior to our independence and several others after that. A host of committed journalists came out from socialist, communist, naxal of JP movements and played important roles as journalists not only in the state but also in several parts of the country. They served as foundation for exemplary journalism in the country. They never indulged in give-and-take type of journalism rather courageously reported the issues that were vital for the society and the country. There is no incident that can be counted as an example of ‘the journalist being purchased by an award of any other material offers like land or housing’. On the other hand, when in the 1980s, the Jagannath Mishra government tried to gag the press, or during the emergency imposed during Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the journalists in Bihar fought tooth and nail to preserve the freedom of the press. It goes without saying that journalists from Bihar are serving as pillars of several media institutions of the country, because of their clear understanding, the manner of writing, integrity, commitment, loyalty and perseverance.
However, a dangerous trend being witnessed in Bihar is that the right to write the truth has been lost in the State. This is not only a violation of the rights that are guaranteed under the Constitution of India, but also poses a threat to free and fare journalism, resulting in an unsavoury situation in the state. Due to government pressure over the media, the news relating to even small agitations are being blacked out in the state like Bihar, which otherwise is known for raising matters of public concern. News relating to agitations, public concern do not find place in the newspapers, for they dare to raise uncomfortable questions for the government because they point fingers on the weaknesses and faults of the governance.

Such an indirect control over the media has direct perceivable impact on the people’s right to know, the guarantee given to the civil society under the Constitution of India. It has in a way threatens the very democracy in violation of the article 19(1) A of the Constitution. Such an indirect act of the government poses the danger of triggering a constitutional crisis in the state. It needs a serious look into the matter. Free and fare journalism in Bihar is facing a situation of censorship the likes of which was seen during the emergency in our country. The journalism of Bihar that has long been known in the country for its courageous writings and of journalists putting even their lives at stake, are now gagged, muted and handicapped. Journalists, by and large are feeling suffocated with many of them pleading their helplessness. A large number of the journalists who appeared before the fact finding team complained of prevalence of the practice of scores of news-items being sent to the editorial sections of respective newspapers by their management bearing the signatures of branch head, general manager, chief manager, circulation manager as well as advertisement manager’s every day for its publication. Such news items are considered to be a “must” for its publication irrespective of the fact that whether such news-items are really newsworthy or not, from the editorial point of view. Surprisingly the list also included newspapers which are published from outside the state, where the desks have a constant demand from its Bihar based reporters to file state government friendly reports. Ostensibly with an eye to curry state government favour in form of state government ads.
While talking to the members of the team during their informal “off the record” talks, some journalists complained of managerial prevalence in day to day editorial matters. But they all pleaded that they have no option, but to abide by such an unethical managerial practice. Incidentally prior to the visit of FFT, Bihar team to Bihar districts and after announcement of constitution of the three member Press Council Of India Fact Finding Team to study Pressure on Media in Bihar by Hon’ble PCI Chairman, Justice Markandey Katju a few meetings were held in the name of “defence of freedom of press and media” in which few senior media men too had also joined. Members of the FFT, Bihar team also started receiving lots of phones from several journalists showing their keen interest in this regard, but pleaded anonymity. The committee also noted this as a symptom of prevailing unannounced pressure on media.
The reporters and outstation correspondents too are required to arrange/manage advertisements from the IPRD as well as the private parties. The supposedly senior journalists are assigned these jobs more.
In this regard many a journalists referred to the transfer of a senior ranking journalist of an esteemed National Hindi daily published from Bihar for his falling out of the grace of powers that be for publishing a news-item related to some alleged scam in a state government department quoting the then departmental minister.

The managements of the newspapers which enjoy the benefits of the government advertisements feel grateful to benefactor establishment and resort to praising their policies. Management of the newspapers being published from the state have allegedly surrendered before the government for the fear of losing advertisements. Damocles sword in the form of possible stopping of the government advertisement is always hanging over their head. It has been observed that many of such management of newspapers are even avoiding publication of news related to public interests and social concerns that may be of public interest.
The role of opposition is considered one of the important factors in parliamentary democracy. The ruling establishment is supposed to protect the opposition’s right to oppose. This committee has also received complaints narrating as to how the issues of public import raised by them are ignored by the media. The issues raised by the opposition in the legislative assembly or the council do not find proper space in the newspapers, since the management of the newspapers are under fear of losing government support. The activities of the opposition outside the houses are also not properly reported on account of the same fear.
This is a dangerous scenario in parliamentary democracy that may endanger the very basis of democracy. Hundreds of complaints received by the probe committee give ample proof of direct government pressure on newspapers. The committee went through various editions of the newspapers like Hindi daily Jagaran, Hindustan and Prabhat Khabar and found them faltering on many accounts. Hundreds of the activities of the Chief Minister were prominently published, especially by Hindustan, which were neither newsworthy nor relevant, if judged by the standard of journalism. It has been alleged that two or three photographs of the Chief Minister were unnecessarily published on daily basis and his routine statements are published in four columns. The news relating to crime, corruption, social concerns, opposition and civil organizations did not find place even though they deserved to be published on account of their importance as per the standard of journalism.
The morale of the social movements in the state was perceived to have been shattered due to this partisan attitude of the newspapers. Several opposition parties narrated, both in writing and orally, about non-publication of news due to government’s control over the media. Newspapers, in general, are avoiding publishing news related to the opposition, and when they are compelled to publish them on account of their readership needs, they publish such news on inside pages and that too in brief, it was further charged. According to opposition political parties, underplaying the news of the opposition or related to public concern has somehow become a norm. Even the news related to development, crime, corruption, embezzlement, murder, rape, kidnapping and abduction, ransom, robbery etc, which were part of the government documents, were avoided.
For instance, the news relating to seizure of Rs 4.5 crore from the house of a former Janata Dal (U) councillor Vinay Kumar Sinha, was avoided allegedly due to the popular perception that he is a confidant of the Chief Minister. A Handful of newspapers published this new, but they too consciously avoided reporting an important fact that he was the treasurer of the ruling party. When the opposition political parties demanded a probe in this matter, the newspapers published their demand in ‘underplaying’ mode and briefly disposed of the matter.
In this regard, under-display of a news-item pertaining to police high-handedness in Bhajanpura village in Forbesganj in Araria district, in which a police Jawan was seen to be rampling a common man there under his boot, is an example of prevalence of such an undeclared self-censorship in print media in Bihar, though this incident was telecasted across the country. The issue of under display of this news was brought into the notice of the fact finding team firstly by Bihar Media Watch which had sent a letter to the Chairman of the Press Council of India immediately after the incident. A cross-section of the readers and social activists in course of fact finding team’s visit to Bihar further confirmed it.
Bihar Media Watch was the first to complain the Press Council of India that Forbesganj firing incident was not carried by papers like Hindustan, Dainik Jagran and Prabhat Khabar. Even the visit of the National Commission for Minorities chairman Justice Wajahat Habibullah to Bhajanpura firing site was not covered. However, Hindustan Hindi daily through one of its column ran a campaign against it colouring the visit of Minorities Commission chairman to Forbesganj village on communal lines.
In its complaint, referring the Forbisganj firing of June 3, 2011 as an example, Bihar Media Watch said that the three newspapers being published from Patna – Hindustan, Dainik Jagaran and Prabhat Khabar – avoided even publishing simple information about the incident. Media Watch said that Hindustan refused to even acknowledge the visit of the Chairman of the Minority Commission, Wajahat Habibullah, to Forbisganj on June 21, 2011, as news. On the other hand, the newspaper published a column ‘Do Tuk’ on the front page on June 24, 2011 in which it performed the role of supporting the ruling establishment. It may be mentioned here that four persons belonging to Muslim community were shot dead by Bihar Police personnel on June 1, 2011 after a roadblock. The injured were trample upon by boot wearing police. Video clippings of the incidents were published on social media sites. Some national channels also dared to show these footage. However, the local newspapers published this incident of police atrocity in deep inside the pages (like pages 12-13) is such a manner as if it was not an incident worth attention. No follow up news was published. In this ‘well governed’ stat, the news regarding this incident was tried to be suppressed on behest of the government. According to Media Watch, Hindustan was not in a position to take any risk because maximum number of advertisements is being given to this newspaper. Though the newspaper editors took an alibi that it was not deliberate, as they had covered the incident but did not found it to be fit to highlight it in a big way. On the contrary, social activists complained that such an incident of blatant violation of human rights and human dignity demanded a proper display of such news.
During the hearing those who appeared before the fact finding team, had a common complaint that newspapers in Bihar totally ignore people’s issues like hunger, starvation deaths, peoples’ movements, non-implementation or tardy implementation of poverty alleviation schemes, corruption eating out into poverty alleviation schemes, police atrocities, police high-handedness, under-development and state government apathy to people’s plight as well as other such issues which deserve proper coverage in newspapers in public interest. RJD leaders expressed their concern over the fact that their agitations and statements go quite unreported or are under-reported. They all had a common refrain that state government press releases, statement of ministers, bureaucrats are given undue display whereas the statements and news of opposition is largely ignored. The fact finding team also found that a large number of common people who are generally newspaper readers, share the same feelings as was expressed by the trade union activists, social activists and the opposition leaders. However, if uncomfortable news-items are published, then it is only in such cases where administrative actions in terms of FIR filed occur. Besides, in critical political reports, the ruling parties, by and large is left untouched. One of the senior Urdu Journalists of Bihar Rehan Ghani, who appeared before the Fact Finding Team said that he was made the victim of such an undeclared pressure of the state government on the media exerted through the owners and the managers of the media houses. He narrated that in his capacity as Chief Editor of Urdu Daily Pindaar he was running a regular column “Do Tuk” since 2004 but in May 2007 as, according to him, one of his Do Tuk pieces hurt the state chief minister, Nitish Kumar. In response to this “journalistic misdemeanour” he was called by the Proprietor of his paper to say that the state government was quite unhappy with his column and the State Minority Commission Chairman, Naushad Ahmad has communicated this displeasure of the state government over phone asking him to “set” i.e. to get rid of the person who had written this piece. As a result of it, the paper’s proprietor first dropped his column then demoted him to the post of Managing Editor and ultimately his name was removed from the Print line.
The leader of the opposition in the Legislative Assembly of the state, Abdul Bari Siddiqui said in his complaint submitted to the committee that no news is published in the newspapers of the state that contradict the claim of the good governance being made by the ruling establishment. He alleged that the government is paying the cost of keeping the newspapers mum by implementing a centralised advertisement policy in the state under which advertisements are being given arbitrarily to the favoured newspapers. He alleges that the Advertisement Policy 2008 was prepared by bureaucrats and never tabled in the Legislative Assembly of the state for consideration and passage. Having obliged by the government advertisements, the newspapers either avoid publication of news related to crime, ransom, land grabbing by the leaders of the ruling establishment or their supporters, murders, and the activities of the land mafia, or they are underplayed and published in brief as small news items. He further alleged that the charge sheet against the Nitish Government released by his party RJD in 2009 was also not given due weightage by the newspapers, though it contained several revelation of misdeeds of the government. The Charge sheet raised many issues relating to crime, law and order situation and scams, but they hardly got published, and the prominent newspapers did not give weightage to the allegations of the opposition. However, some television channels carried the news prominently. It was mentioned in the complaint as to when it comes to report the news relating to the government, reporters try to explain them in favour of the government, but when it comes to report opposition’s claims, reporters try to explain them in negative terms.
The FFT was informed that Shiv Kapur Sinha, a senior officer in the Directorate of information and publicity, had even sent letters of instructions to local newspapers saying that the ministers concerned were unhappy over the news being not fully published in positive manner, and therefore they ascertain that news relating to government should properly get published. After a controversy over the issue, Rajesh Bhushan, Chief Secretary of the state, made a statement that the letters contain Shiv Kapur Sinha’s personal views. Mr Haque says this is only an example of government hegemony over the newspapers.  The circular issued by the then IPRD deputy director, Shivkapoor Sinha stated that the minister was angry with the recent trend of the newspapers as it has been found that the government’s press-releases were not being “properly covered”. However, the then IPRD principal secretary, Rajesh Bhushan immediately contradicted the said IPRD letter and also announced action against Shivkapoor Sinha (now retired) for issuing such a letter. The circular signed by the then IPRD director, Shivkapoor Sinha is being annexed with this report. The said letter reached to the Fact Finding Team and was also carried in a section of paper and it generated much heat in the backdrop of the team’s visit to Bihar. The Fact Finding Team is of the opinion such a circular could not be considered to be an isolated action of a director rank IPRD official. The concerned circular is attached herewith.
Akhilesh, the Editor of Dainik Tarun Mitra, said in his complaint submitted to the committee that he was being victimised only due to publication of irregularity in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, advertisement scam, printing scam and kerosine oil scam in his newspaper. False cases were framed against him, handcuffed and sent to jail. One by one, five cases were registered against him. A web portal Bihar Times made a written complaint before this fact finding committee, in which it said that they were not being given advertisements by the State Government because they dared to resort to free and fare journalism. IIM Ahmedabad had prepared a case study on their portal. Despite their integrity and reliability, the government did not release any advertisement to their portal. However, the other portals were being regularly supplied with government’s advertisement.
Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD): The president of RJD, the main opposition party in the state, Ramchandra Purve, appeared before the committee along with Ram Kripal Yadav (MP), former legislative council member Ajad Gandhi, former MP Alok Kumar and others, and made written complaint against the ruling establishment alleging that they put pressures on media for compelling them not to publish news that may expose failure of the government. They alleged that managements of newspapers even avoid publishing news and articles that may dent the image of the government or improve the opposition’s image. Only two years before in 2011, Patna High Court had made adverse comments on officials of the Department of Building Constructions. A reporter dared to publish this as news in his newspaper, and the government got this reporter transferred as punishment to Delhi. It resulted into a situation in which other reporters of various newspapers too started avoiding reporting news against the government generated from various courts in the state. Government is indirectly regulating publication of court news against them. RJD leaders alleged that the news of seizure of unaccounted amount of money to the tune of Rs 4.5 crore, dumped in a flour sack in the house of Arun Kumar Sinha, the treasurer of the ruling party, was avoided to be prominently 9 published in newspapers only because the accused was a close confidant of the Chief Minister Nitish Kumar, who had been conducting all his political activities prior to becoming chief minister of the state. The news related to the well known AC-DC scam, BIARDA scam, land scam, flood relief scam, diesel subsidy scam, seeds scam, liquor scam, transport scam, medicine and medical instruments scam, constables’ appointment scam, bicycle and dress scam, and teachers’ appointment scam, etc are either not published or published in brief on inside pages. They were underplayed or suppressed. RJD alleged that newspapers of the state are condemned to write headings of the news related to the opposition in a manner that helps the ruling establishment. The newspapers have lost their privilege to write even headings. Newspapers, under compulsion coupled with their own greed, most of the time tries to ignore news related to the opposition, they alleged.
Indian National Congress, Bihar unit: The Bihar unit of Indian National Congress was represented by H K Varma, the convenor of the Media Cell. His allegations were also like that of the other Opposition parties. The party alleged that the newspapers of the state are not giving proper space to the news related to them. He claimed that his party exposed the weaknesses of the state government. Newspapers consider these expose as anti-government movement and either avoided the news to be published or were not given proper space. The party alleged that the news related to the incidents like crime, corruption, failure of the government hardly get published, as per their importance. Under the pressure of the government they are underplayed and published in inside of even on the last page of the newspapers. On the other hand, the newspapers give prominence to the ruling establishment, the he alleged.
Nagrik Adhikar Manch: The president of the Nagrik Adhikar Manch, Shiv Prakash Ray appeared on behalf of Nagrik Adhikar Manch, and alleged that Mahuwa TV channel had telecast some news stories that were gathered by using Right to Information Act 2005. The information were taken from not lesser authority than the Chief Minister’s Public Grievance cell. However, after the telecast, the ruling establishment put pressure on the channel management and got all the reporting team out of job, which included senior journalist Praveen Bagi and Kulbhushan. This is another example of increasing government’s control over the media.
Lok Janshakti Party: The representatives of the Lok Janshakti Party alleged in their complaint that government control over the media in the state could be ascertained through arbitrary implementation of the centralized advertisement policy. Earlier, it was decentralized and media organizations were being given advertisements at the district level. It was due to the decentralized policy, there was not direct state interference in newspaper contents. However, the news policy has established direct control of the ruling establishment overs the newspaper contents that uses carrot and stick policy to control the contents. That is why news related to public concern or the opposition are not getting their due place in the newspapers. It has adversely affected social movements and opposition’s activities in the state. The issues raised by the opposition are not being published due to government’s pressure. The party alleged that the ruling establishment has taken the media under its full control in the last six years. Journalists are helpless. Newspapers avoid publication of even those news against the government, which are substantiated by valid documents. The party expressed its fear that the dangerous trend may weaken the very democracy in our country. The party prayed for PCI’s intervention in this matter.
Bihar Rajya Vishvavidyalay Evam Mahavidyalay Karmchari Mahasangh (Federation of Bihar state university and college staff associations): The Federation of the associations of employees in the Universities and Colleges in the state has also complained that the news related to the employees of the universities and colleges are not being published because they tried to attract the attention of the government towards their problems. This federation is affiliated with All India Federation of Colleges’ and Universities’ Employees. The federation is raising issues related to 250 affiliated colleges.
Association of Small and Medium Newspapers and Magazines of Bihar: The office bearers of the association alleged in their written complaint that government had established their control over the media through giving advertisements worth crores of rupees to the big newspapers. However, the government felt difficulties in controlling the small and medium newspapers. Keeping this in view, the government drafted such an advertisement policy in 2008 which prevented small newspapers from getting government’s advertisement. The association alleged that such a policy was drafted to gag the daring small and medium newspapers to such an extent that they die their natural death. As a result, many newspapers and magazines were either closed due to financial constraints or surrendered before the government’s ‘will’. The association prayed for PCI’s intervention in the matter and alleged that the advertisement policy was discriminatory.
Annexer (Advertisement Policy of the Government of Bihar -2008)
The committee also went through various editions of newspapers being published in the state. It was clearly observed that newspapers tried to consciously ignore the issues raised by the opposition. In a parliamentary democracy, the role of the opposition is considered important, however, newspapers did not give their due importance. When the committee tried to know the reason behind such an attitude, several editors forwarded the logic that they gave importance as per their strength in the House. Newspapers have, all the more, increased responsibilities when the opposition is weak, the opinion that has no meaning for such editors. The Right to Information Act, 2005 is one of the most popular acts passed in the parliament. This act is also considered important for journalists. However, in Bihar, this Act seems to be ineffective. Information officers allegedly do not give information to journalists and various sections of the society giving reasons that the information could be used as news. The 11 committee received many complaints in which it was alleged that vital information is not furnished because of the fear of their journalistic usage. When a journalist dared to report on the basis of the information received from the Commission. He was then victimized.
The big multi-edition newspapers like Hindustan, Dainik Jagaran and Prabhat Khabarbeing published from several districts of the state have resorted to even false RNI registration numbers and getting crore of rupees from the government as advertising revenue. The Registrar of Newspapers in India has already issued circulars and declared publication of newspapers without a valid RNI number as illegal. Permission of the RNI for publication of newspapers and magazines is mandatory. When the Committee pointed out the various provisions of the Press and Book Registration act-1867, the managements of the newspapers were found to be speechless on account of their failure to have any satisfactory answer.
However, they started publishing ‘applied for’ after RNI No. In such a situation, newspapers violating the rule should not be given government advertisement on regular basis, but they  are getting advertisements in lieu of their praising the government. Under the Press and Book Registration act-1867, the following rules are applicable for publishing a newspaper – Filing a declaration before the concerned district magistrate in the prescribed format, even before starting publication, Issuance of certificate by the concerned district magistrate accordingly Getting permission from Registrar of Companies Getting the newspaper registered in RNI Many newspapers are violating not only the rules but also making money through unfair means. The issue is also under consideration in the Patna High Court. It is expected that many revelation may come into light in the year 2013. While hearing the criminal writ petition No -2951/2012 and 16763/2012, Justice Anjana Prakash on December 17, 2012, refused to interfere in the investigation being carried on in the case (445/2011) registered in Kotwali police station in Munger, and passed an order to complete investigation against Dainik Hindustan within three months. The court has taken cognizance of the allegation that newspapers are getting government advertisement in violation of certain rules. In the case under investigation, it was alleged that Dainik Hindustan got government advertisements worth Rs 200 crore which was in violation of the rules. Dainik Hindustan started publication of its Bhagalpur edition on August 3, 2001 and after some time they started publishing Munger edition, without following rules, the proof of which can also be seen in the Audit report no 195/2005-06 of the Department of Finance, Government of Bihar.
It was observed that Dainik Hindustan, printed and published from Bhagalpur and Munger, published RNI No 44348/86, between 2001 and June 30, 2011, the number which was originally allotted to Patna edition. From July 1, 2011 to April 16, 2012, it was replaced by ‘applied for’. Again on April 17, 2012, the newspaper published RNI no – BIHHIN/2011/41407. Moreover, the court prima facie found the allegations to be true made in the case no -445/2011 registered in Kotwali police station in Munger, in which named accused are 1. Shobhna Bharatiya, Chairperson, the Hindustan Media Ventures Ltd, New Delhi, 2. Shashi Shekhar, Editor-in-Chief, Dainik Hindustan, New Delhi, 3. A K Srivastav, Executive Editor, Hindustan, Patna edition, 4. Binod Bandhu, Resident Editor, Hindustan, Bhagalpur edition, and 5. Amit Chopra, Printer and Publisher, M/S Hindustan Media Ventures Ltd, New Delhi.
The case was registered under section 420/471/476 of the IPC and 8 b, 14, and 15 of the Press and Book Registration act-1867. Justice Anjana Prakash has quoted line by line from the report of Kuldeep Narayan, the District Magistrate of Munger, in the para 12 of the order, that has exposed illegal publication of newspapers from 37 districts of the state, apart from Patna. The district magistrate of Munger has written in his report submitted to the Patna High Court, “I got the Bhagalpur, Munger and Lakhisarai editions of Dainik Hindustan today an found that the news published in those editions were different, the government advertisements were different, but they carried same name as their editor, printer and publisher, the same telephone and RNI numbers. He has written further, “Since news items were different in the three editions, they should be considered as different newspapers and all the three editions should take their own RNI numbers.”
Dainik Hindustan has recently got permission from RNI to print and publish the newspaper from Bhagalpur press. However, the proprietor and editor of the newspaper are openly printing, publishing, and circulating it as Munger, Lakhisarai, Jamui, Shekhpura, Khagaria, Begusarai and several other district editions. The present RNI no being published in the Bhagalpur edition of Dainik Hindustan is BIHHIN /2011/41407. RNI, New Delhi has allowed Prabhat Khabar to publish newspaper from Bhagalpur press and has allotted RNI No -2011/37188. However, this newspaper too is illegally using this number and printing, publishing and circulating its Munger, Lakhisarai, Jamui, Shekhpura, Khagaria, Begusarai and other district editions, which is an offence.
Registrar of newspapers, New Delhi, has given permission to Dainik Jagaran to publish the newspaper from Patna. However, Dainik Jagaran had been printing, publishing and circulating its Bhagalpur, Munger, Lakhisarai, Jamui, Shekhpura, Khagaria, Begusarai and other district editions by using the same registration number for years and earning through government advertisements. Presently, this newspaper is printing RNI no as ‘applied for’. Despite this fact, the Union Government and the Bihar Government are regularly giving advertisement to the newspaper for publication. It is an example of the lively culture of loot of the exchequer.
Several English and Urdu dailies has got permission to print their newspapers from Kolkata to be published from Patna. However, the same newspapers are getting their newspapers printed at Patna and circulating the same in all over the state. Urdu and English language newspapers are also illegally getting government advertisements. All these are done with the sole purpose of getting advertisements from the Union and the State governments.
It is a stark fact that the entire Media industry in Bihar depends mainly on the state government advertisements for the major share of its ad-revenue. Being an industrially backward state, it surely lacks private commercial ads here. The share of business ads are considered to be quite necessary for the survival of the purely business-centric media houses. This fact is recognized both by the media houses as well as the state government. In such an ad-market condition the state government enjoys a monopolistic status. Taking advantage of its monopolistic status in handing out advertisements, the government is ostensibly found to be using this status as a lever to arm-twist the media houses with an eye to compel newspaper house managements to willy-nilly function as its undeclared mouthpiece.
Such a monopolistic status of the state government naturally demands a total surrender of the principles of press freedom, its sense of critical assessment and also of the ethical journalism which is a sine quanon for any independent media to deliver its duty as a “watchdog of the society”. But the visiting PCI Fact Finding Team Bihar after conducting a detailed inquiry is now of the opinion that an appropriate atmosphere for the functioning of an ethical journalism working as a real “watchdog of the society” seems to be absent in the state of Bihar. Under such an ad market situation, as presently prevailing in Bihar the newspaper managements have been found to be more than willing to surrender all the norms and ethics of journalism. All this is to achieve what is called in managerial terms “adrevenue targets”. But this ad-revenue target is being achieved – at the cost of the healthy development and well-being of the society, of democratic values and more so of the established norms and principles of the ethical journalism.
This profit making corporate ideology bereft of social responsibility and legality, through the managerial bosses of the newspaper houses, has effectively reached into the newsrooms of almost all the newspapers in Bihar and has left a chilling effect leading to a situation of undeclared “selfcensorship”. This undeclared self-censorship is applied in the newsrooms in order to ensure that any material which has a potential to cause inconvenience for the state government in any way is prevented to go in print. An objective analysis of newspapers makes it quite clear that news-reports related to social audit of the state government run schemes and plans are a rarity in the newspapers of Bihar. Only those uncomfortable news-items go into the print, which might cost creditability of the newspapers. The management of the ‘friendly’ newspaper houses of the state, which includes almost all the prominent dailies of Bihar- both Hindi and English – is being issued advertisements irregularly, which can be termed gross misuse of public funds. The state government Information and Public Relations Department (IPRD) –deliberately and conveniently look the other way, while issuing advertisements even to those newspapers’ split editions, which are being published in violation of rules from different parts of the state. Almost all the split districts editions of the prominent newspapers in Bihar were found by the members of this Fact Finding Team to be being published in clear contravention to Sections 5 (2C), (3), 19 C, 6, 8(B), 14, 15 of the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 and Section 10 of the Registration of Newspaper Central Rules 1956. It is quite obvious that without active connivance and co-operation of the state government Information and Public Relations Department (IPRD), such illegality could not continue and that too for years together. Media brands including The Times Of India, Hindustan, Dainik Jagran, Prabhat Khabar, Roznama Rashtriya Sahara have all been found prima facie guilty of publishing their newspapers in utter violation of Sections 5 (2C), (3), 19 C, 6, 8(B), 14, 15 of the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 and Section 10 of the Registration of Newspaper Central Rules 1956.
It has been found that IPRD has released government advertisements to all such publications for years and years together against which all these newspaper managements raised the bills.. During the period several objections were also raised on this count time to time. Once by the state government Finance (Audit) department in the year 2006 vide its letter no. 178 dated. 9/5/2006 and twice by Bindeshwari Prasad Singh Deputy Director, in his comments on departmental files. It is also noteworthy that in course of a one to one interviews, the state IPRD officials denied even existence of any adverse comment by the then IPRD Deputy Director, Bindeshwari Prasad Singh in this regard. In course of its response to an application under the Right to Information (RTI) Act too which was signed by no other than the then IPRD Deputy Director Bindeshwari Prasad Singh (now retired), he denied it. Though in the reply to an RTI application, signed by B P Singh himself, mention that it was just a mantawya (I.e. comment) and not a “report”. However, the fact finding team on its own endeavour dug out the photo-copy of B P Singh’s comments, which is being annexed herewith this FFT Bihar report.
Surprisingly enough in spite of this issue being discussed at the IPRD level twice the practice of publication of “illegal” editions, issuance of advertisement release orders to these illegal publications and payment thereof continues. This fact amply highlights the unholy deep nexus of the newspaper management with the mandarins of the IPRD.
Bihar Advertisement Policy- 2008 eligibility criteria clearly mention as: (b) The Newspaper / periodical must be registered under the provisions of the Press and Registration of Books Act (PRB Act) 1867 by the RNI, New Delhi. But this clause has been found to be conveniently ignored by the IPRD officials while issuing release orders for the favoured newspapers and the unregistered split district editions thereof by the fact finding team. The Fact Finding Team also find mention of the term “interest of the state or work” in the Bihar Advertisement Policy-2008 which is pregnant with meanings. It could be interpreted in many ways by the government officials to harass those media houses, who dare go critical of the state government.
This term could be interpreted as per the whims and fancies of the state government or its officials to make them toe the state government line. When asked the IPRD officials too in their interaction with the Fact Finding Team conceded that it “could be explained in many ways”. However, the IPRD officials pleaded that it is a common practice that such terms are used by the government, while framing government rules and policies. The team is of the opinion that such an open-ended term smacks of state government intention to exercise control over the newspapers. The team feels that term like “interest of the state or work” should be defined and codified and should not be left to the whims and fancies of the officials for its interpretation. But the team is of the firm opinion that to ensure freedom of press enshrined in Article 19 1(a) of the Constitution of India in its letter and spirit, such vagueness should not be allowed to continue further. A good number of newspaper reporters are engaged in collecting advertisements from the private parties too on which they are also given cut money as “commission” by the newspaper management.
Such incidents also came before the fact finding team. One such reporter Sardar Surendra Singh of Gaya who was earlier working as a stringer with Aaj Hindi Daily of Patna appeared before the Fact Finding Team saying that the Aaj management has still not paid an amount to the tune of Rs. 2 lakh of the commission due to him for the advertisements, which was collected by him for his publication for which he was working with at that time.
Rashtriya Janta Dal (RJD) Rajya Sabha MP, Ramkripal Yadav while appearing before the Fact Finding 15 Team said that the state government’s pressure on media could only be gauged from the fact that even the advertisements containing some critical facts and figures which seem to be going against the state government, are not carried at all. He said that during Kosi Floods’ 2008 – his party had booked an advertisement exposing the state government through an ad agency which was not even carried by any of the newspaper house of the state but for the exception of a small newspaper Nav Bihar. He too cited a similar example of non-publication of an advertisement booked by an outfit Kisan Mahapanchayat. He said that the newspaper houses ‘management of the state denied publication of the Kisan Mahapanchayat advertisement. So much so that when the same Kisan Mahapanchayat advertisement was booked through a Delhi based ad agency it was inadvertently carried in a split edition of the Hindustan Hindi daily. But as soon as it was brought to the notice of the Hindustan management the same Kisan Mahapanchayat advertisement was immediately removed from the paper in the rest of the editions and the same advertisement amount was returned to the Delhi based ad agency which had booked the same advertisement. If there is even an iota of truth in this matter it certainly points towards a greater malaise prevailing in the state.
Now come to the new advertisement policy adopted by the state government in the year 2008. Section 4 of the Bihar Advertisement Policy, 2008 reads as: “The Empowered advertisement Committee keeping in mind requirements, the practicality and the state interest, may recommend such newspapers/periodicals, from those applying for enlistment in the approved list, as it may deem fit. It would not be binding for the Committee to include in the approved list, any newspapers/periodical in the approved list merely because it fulfils the eligibility criteria. The Committee shall have the freedom and the competency to delist any listed Newspaper / periodical in the interest of the state or work, from the approved list.”
The fact that the Empowered Advertisement Committee of the state government would not be bound to include in the approved list, any newspapers/periodical in the approved list even if it fulfils the eligibility criteria. Meaning thereby, it could be concluded that in its advertisement policy itself the newspaper management has been left at the mercy – rather on the whims and fancies – of the state government officials through the IPRD for the government advertisements. The fact finding team consider this clause to be totally against the principles of “freedom of press and media”.
It is also not without any rhyme and reason that there is not even an internal arrangement in Bihar newspapers to see to the readers’ complaints related to violation of journalistic ethics, editorial contents and of neglect of public issues. As it is found uncomfortable for those running the newspaper publications as per their self-styled version of journalistic ethics they pursue.
It is also of serious concern for the fact finding team that the Bihar Advertisement Policy-2008 has given undue emphasis on circulation of a newspaper. The policy reads as: “(e) The circulation for Hindi newspapers should not be less than 45000, for English newspapers it should not be less than 25000 and for Urdu newspapers should not be less than 20000. For periodicals the minimum circulation would be 20,000. Regarding circulation, the certification from ABC or other standard organizations would be necessary.”
This provision of the state government advertisement policy may be detrimental for the development of small and medium newspapers in the state as it is tilted towards the big newspapers/ periodicals.
This Team would like to emphasise that the topmost priority in country as well as Bihar too should be to help all the newspapers to develop both in terms of circulation and also in terms of quality.

1. Bihar Government should create conducive environment for practice of free and fair journalism in the State.
2. Review of all cases pending against journalists in the State by an independent judicial commission.
3. Government of Bihar should ensure safety of journalists and the State Government should extend all possible help in discharge of their professional duties.
4. A mechanism should be set up for regular interaction between the district administration, police with the local journalists to sort out conflicts.
5. Accreditation policy should be reviewed in consultations with journalists.
6. Hearing of cases pending against journalists in Labour Department should be fast tracked.
7. Labour department should take cognizance of complaints lodged by journalists against the management of the newspaper.
8. Introduction of free health care scheme for the journalists and their dependent.
9. Review of the State Government Advertisement Policy 2008 and constitution of an independent agency to release advertisements to news -paper houses strictly on basis of  guidelines. All the government advertisements should be released through this independent ad-agency. Such committee should have adequate representations from small and medium newspaper and vernacular language papers.
10. Complaints of small and medium newspapers regarding issue of advertisements should be given due weightage and efforts should be made to redress their grievances in a fair manner without further delay.
11. Bihar Add committee should be headed by a non-government representative.
12. Decentralisation of distribution of government advertisement to district level.
13. A judicial inquiry should ordered against the newspaper publications, which are publishing without proper RNI registration and efforts should be made to recover the amount given to the such publications under Public Demand Recovery Act and no fresh advertisements should be issued to such unregistered publications.

Bihar Assessment - 2013, South Asia Terrorism Portal Report

Eight persons, including six Police personnel and one Special Police Officer (SPO), were killed when Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist) cadres blew up a Police vehicle between Uchla and Dhamania villages under the Roshanganj Police Station in Gaya District, on February 22, 2013. The eighth person was a civilian travelling with the Police. The Police party had gone to Balasot village on the request of the local Child Development Project Officer (CDPO), to provide security cover to a programme organized there for recruitment of village level workers.

Just a month earlier, on January 21, about 50 Security Force (SF) personnel had escaped narrowly when Maoists triggered a landmine blast on the road at Salaiya More in Dumuria Block in the same District, moments after troopers had walked away from the blast location.

Again, on October 18, 2012, six Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) troopers were killed and another eight CRPF troopers, including a Deputy Commandant, were injured, when CPI-Maoist cadres triggered an improvised explosive device (IED) blast, blowing up a Mine Protected Vehicle (MPV) near the Chakarbandha Forest, in Barha village under the Dumaria Police Station in Gaya District. The CRPF troopers were returning after conducting a raid on a Maoist hideout.

These incidents reaffirm the enduring capacities of the Maoists, despite significant losses of leaders and cadres, and in spite of declining levels of violence.

According to partial data compiled by South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP), Bihar recorded 41 fatalities in 2012, in Left Wing Extremism (LWE)-related violence, including 16 civilians, 10 SF personnel, and 15 Maoists. In 2011, 61 fatalities had been recorded, including 39 civilians, three SF personnel and 19 Maoists. Though a sharp decline has been registered in civilian fatalities, SF fatalities increased from three to 10, while Maoist fatalities declined marginally.

Source: SATP, * Data till February 24, 2013

Union Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) data also confirmed these trends, recording 49 total fatalities in 2012, including 34 civilians, 10 SF personnel and five Maoists; as against 77 fatalities in 2011, including 60 civilians, three SF personnel and 14 Maoists.

Five major incidents (involving three or more fatalities) were recorded in 2012, as against six such incidents in 2011. In one such incident, on June 10, 2012, SFs comprising Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA), Special Task Force (STF) and Bihar Military Police (BMP) troopers, entered into a familiar Maoist trap – after receiving purported information of Maoist presence – in the Chakarbandha Forest under the Dumaria Police Station in Gaya District. One MPV was damaged and one trooper died in a landmine blast, while another succumbed to a heart attack. SFs shot dead two Maoists. It was subsequently discovered that the Maoists had planted nearly 85 landmines in the area.

The Maoists were also involved in seven cases of recorded abductions. Among these, they killed a total of six people in two incidents. Further, in an audacious attempt in broad daylight, on June 20, 2012, the Maoists abducted 19 Railway employees, including a Station Master, in Jamui District. However, they released the hostages later the same evening.

The Maoists were also involved in 18 recorded incidents of arson, and particularly targeted road construction works, setting ablaze equipment and vehicles. 12 sand-laden trucks were set ablaze at Gidheshwar Ghat under the Khaira Police Station area in Jamui District, for defying the two-day East Bihar and Jharkhand bandh (general shot down) called by the Maoists on March 22, 2012, to protest the arrest of five of their leaders from various places in Bihar and Jharkhand.

Most of the parameters remain comparable in both years, and the high number of arrests stands out. In fact, the number of Maoists arrested in 2012 in Bihar was the highest (422) among the Maoist-affected states, followed by Chhattisgarh (397), Jharkhand (377), Andhra Pradesh (312), Odisha (186), Maharashtra (78), West Bengal (76), and others (34). Two significant indicators – the number of arms training camps held and the number of Jan Adalats (‘People’s Courts’, kangaroo courts organized by the Maoists) showed significant decline, from 12 to five and 17 to 10, respectively.

In 2011, State police had made several significant arrests, a performance they could not repeat in 2012. Nevertheless, at least one ‘commandeer’, two ‘zonal commanders’, nine ‘sub-zonal commanders’, and 13 ‘area commanders’, were arrested in 2012, while one ‘area commander’ and one ‘sub-zonal commander’ surrendered.

The SFs recovered large quantities of explosives in combing operations through the year. Among the major seizures were the January 6, 2012, incident, when Bihar Police recovered 500 quintals of explosives in Gaya District. On February 7, in Jamui District, SFs seized nearly two tonnes of explosives and a huge quantity of arms and ammunition, including 13 rifles, 500 detonators, and hundreds of IEDs. Police also seized around 90 quintals of ammonium nitrate and 3,000 detonators which were to be delivered to the mining mafia and the Maoists in Rohtas District, on September 19.

An analysis of underground and overground activities of the Maoists in Bihar indicates that 19 of a total of 38 Districts recorded Maoist-related incidents of some form or other. These were: Aurangabad, Banka, Begusarai, East Champaran, Gaya, Jamui, Jehanabad, Kaimur, Katihar, Munger, Muzaffarpur, Patna, Purnia, Samastipur, Sheohor, Vaishali, Sitamarhi, Saran and Rohtas. In 2011, the number of Districts where Maoist-related incidents occurred numbered 24. Most of the violence in 2012 was, however, concentrated in Gaya, Rohtas, Aurangabad, Munger, Jamui, Sitamarhi and Vaishali Districts.

Suresh Yadav aka Nagendra, an ‘area commander’ of a Maoist group, who was arrested on December 31, 2011, had disclosed that the Maoists operating in eastern Bihar and neighbouring Jharkhand Districts had regrouped under a new structure, having dissolved their old Jamui-Bhagalpur Committee, and formed a new zonal group — the Eastern Bihar-North Jharkhand Zonal Committee. The new Committee would operate in more than a dozen Districts in eastern Bihar and in some parts of north Jharkhand. Yadav revealed, further, that some members of the Committee had been sent to Nepal for training.

Earlier, speaking at the Chief Ministers’ (CM) Conference on Internal Security in New Delhi, on April 16, 2012, Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar reiterated his demand for increasing the strength of Central Armed Forces in Bihar. He also sought more financial assistance to implement the 'Aapki Sarkar Aapke Dwar' (Your Government at Your Doorstep) scheme. He claimed, “Our approach, along with the strategy of area domination, intelligence-based operations, providing security to ongoing development works and capacity building of the Police force, is reaping good results."

Chief Minister Kumar, however, expressed dissatisfaction on the slow implementation of the Central Government’s flagship schemes, such as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA), the Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY, a housing scheme). Interestingly, Union Rural Development (URD) Minister, Jairam Ramesh, on August 25, 2012, warned that the Maoist movement could intensify if adequate steps were not taken to provide basic infrastructure to the rural population.

Despite claims of success and a ‘strong’ state response, it remains the case that the Police-population ratio (number of Policemen per 100,000 population) in Bihar, at 65, as on December 31, 2011, remained the lowest among Indian States, and indeed, is less than half the national average of 137, according to National Crimes Record Bureau data. The Bihar Police-population ratio rose by just a single digit in a year, from 64 in 2010.

When URD Minister Ramesh visited Sitamarhi District on June 17, 2012, the District administration prevailed upon him not to venture into the Maoist-affected Giddha gram panchayat (village level locals self Government institution) under the Runnisaidpur Block, 35 kilometres from the District headquarters, fearing landmine attack. Ramesh expressed concern over the shortage of Police Force and the low number of Police Stations in Bihar. In Sitamarhi, he observed, for 3.5 million people across 17 blocks, there were only 18 Police Stations, which are also ill-equipped. “This number should be doubled,” he noted, adding that “whether it is terrorism or Naxalism, the Police have to fight the menace just as it was achieved by Punjab Police.”

Meanwhile, the MHA approved construction of 85 ‘fortified’ Police Stations in Bihar. Further, as part of the exercise to intensify area domination in Maoist-hit Districts of the State, the CRPF has decided to set up a Group Centre in Patna, which will comprise of five battalions, spread over different Districts. The five battalions would be strategically located at Gaya, Jamui, Rohtas, East Champaran and Patna.

The Union Government has also provided Netra, a small toy-like surveillance aircraft, to the CRPF’s 159th battalion in Gaya, to keep a close watch on Maoists hiding in dense forests and hills in Gaya.

The decline in violence notwithstanding, the CPI-Maoist retains sufficient capacities for disruptive dominance in large parts of the State. Bihar’s persistent and excessive dependence on Central Forces, without any urgent effort to expand and improve the capacities of the State Police, can only leave the State and its people vulnerable to Maoist violence, whenever the rebels decide that an escalation could be strategically advantageous.

Related Links

Bihar: Persistent Vulnerabilities - - Mrinal Kanta Das, SAIR
Odisha: Half Empty - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Jharkhand: Little Respite - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Maharashtra: Uncertain Gains - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Andhra Pradesh: Bare Survival - - Mrinal Kanta Das, SAIR
West Bengal: Maoists on the Mat - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Odisha: Maoist Disarray - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Jharkhand: The Mask of Ideology - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
CPI-Maoist: Anxious Course Correction - - Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
Maharashtra: Red Subversion in Gadchiroli - - Ajit Kumar Singh & Deepak Kumar Nayak, SAIR
Odisha: Malkangiri: Profile of Failure - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan & Deepak Kumar Nayak, SAIR
Maoists: Enduring Strengths - - Ajai Sahni , SAIR
Odisha: Fragile State - - Ajai Sahni & Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
The Maoists: Dance of the Tarantula - - Ajai Sahni , SAIR
Odisha: Deep Paralysis - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Chhattisgarh: A Future in Blood - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Jharkhand: Operational Stasis - - Deepak Kumar Nayak , SAIR
Andhra Pradesh: A Deepening Calm - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Maharashtra: Losing Momentum - - Deepak Kumar Nayak , SAIR
Bihar: Elusive Coherence - - Deepak Kumar Nayak, SAIR
West Bengal: Body Blow - - Ajai Sahni & Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Maoists: Filling the Void - - Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
Odisha: Expanding Maoist Front - - Deepak Kumar Nayak , SAIR
West Bengal: Does Fire Burn? - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Jharkhand: Barren Monsoon - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Chhattisgarh: Blundering On - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Andhra Pradesh: Wilful Blindness - - Ajai Sahni , SAIR
West Bengal: Re-inventing Folly - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Jharkhand: War without Plan - - Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
Latehar: The Colour of Fratricide - - Deepak Kumar Nayak, SAIR
West Bengal: Elections and the Maoists - - Guest Writer: Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Odisha: Red Bastion in Koraput - - Deepak Kumar Nayak , SAIR
The Maoists: Winning Formula - - Deepak Kumar Nayak , SAIR
Odisha: Tentative Gains- - Deepak Kumar Nayak , SAIR
Jharkhand: Failed Strategy - - Ajit Kumar Singh, SAIR
Maharashtra: Secure in Denial - - Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
West Bengal: The Colour of Blood - - Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Bihar: Maoist Surge- - Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
AP: Red Flags - - Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
A Withering Green- - Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Maoists: Sabotaging the Future- - Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
Maoists: Women in the Camp- - Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
The Maoists and their Mines- - Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
Orissa: Troubled Fronts - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Bihar: Falsehood, Infirmity & Death - -Ajai Sahni , SAIR
West Bengal: The PCPA and its ‘Useful Idiots’ - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Red Rot - -Sandipani Dash , SAIR
Anti-Maoist Strategy: Utter Disarray - -Ajai Sahni , SAIR
Targeting the Economy - -Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
West Bengal: A Year of Failure - -Ajai Sahni & Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
Journey Interrupted - -Ajit Kumar Singh, SAIR
CI Strategies: Garbage In, Garbage Out - -Ajai Sahni , SAIR
Death by Delusion - -Ajai Sahni , SAIR
Red Money - -Ajit Kumar Singh & Sachin Bansidhar Diwan , SAIR
Bihar: The Expediency of Failure - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
West Bengal: Sitting Ducks - -Ajit Kumar Singh, SAIR
Chhattisgarh: Strategies of Failure - -Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
Maharashtra: Maoist Mayhem - -Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
Jharkhand: A Deepening Dark - -Ajit Kumar Singh, SAIR
Orissa: Creeping Consolidation - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Andhra Pradesh: Maoist Free Fall - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Bihar: Unremitting Rampage - -Ajit Kumar Singh, SAIR
West Bengal: The Bitter Fruit of Neglect - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan , SAIR
Jharkhand: On the Boil - -Ajit Kumar Singh, SAIR
Bihar: Macabre Reminder - -Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
West Bengal: Lalgarh: Eruption Unimpeded - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Orissa: Without Will, Purpose or Capacity - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Maharashtra: Red Surge in Gadchiroli - -Ajit Kumar Singh , SAIR
Chhattisgarh: Ages of Unreason - -Ajai Sahni , SAIR
Jharkhand: Steady Erosion - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Lalgarh: Paradigm Case - -Ajai Sahni, SAIR
India: Maoists and the Elections- -Bibhu Prasad Routray, SAIR
Andhra Pradesh: From Tactical Retreat to Disordered Flight - -Bibhu Prasad Routray, SAIR
Chhattisgarh: Chasing a False Peace - -Bibhu Prasad Routray, SAIR
Maharashtra: Harsh Reminder - -Bibhu Prasad Routray, SAIR
Orissa: Fissures in Red - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
Bihar: Ambiguous Gains - -Ajit Kumar Singh, SAIR
Orissa: State of Denial - -Fakir Mohan Pradhan, SAIR
West Bengal: State Myopia, Maoist Consolidation - -Bibhu Prasad Routray, SAIR
The Maoist Threat: Inescapable Illusions - -Bibhu Prasad Routray, SAIR
Arunachal Pradesh: New Command in an Old Frontier - -Wasbir Hussain, SAIR
Chhattisgarh: Ill-prepared and Vulnerable - -Bibhu Prasad Routray, SAIR
Maharashtra: Beyond 'Spillovers' - -Bibhu Prasad Routray, SAIR
Bihar: The State's Enveloping Failure-- Bibhu Prasad Routray ,SAIR
Jharkhand: Tentative Crystallisation against the Maoists --Bibhu Prasad Routray ,SAIR
Orissa: The Maoists March On --Prasanta Kumar Pradhan ,SAIR
Bihar: Deceptive Calm-- Bibhu Prasad Routray ,SAIR
Maharashtra: No Scope for Smugness-- Bibhu Prasad Routray ,SAIR
Andhra Pradesh: The State Advances, the Maoists Retreat-- Ajai Sahni
Jharkhand - Paralysis and Drift-- Ajai Sahni ,SAIR
Asleep in Chhattisgarh --Ajai Sahni ,SAIR
Orissa: Maoist Citadel in Malkangiri-- Prasanta Kumar Pradhan ,SAIR
Maoists: Creeping Malignancy-- Ajai Sahni ,SAIR
Yet another 'surprise' strike -- Bibhu Prasad Routray
The Maoists: Their Decisions, Our Abiding Omissions -- Ajai Sahni, SAIR
Lurching towards a Crisis -- Bibhu Prasad Routray, SAIR
Silent Maoist Consolidation -- Prasanta Kumar Pradhan, SAIR
What Maoists Want -- Ajai Sahni, SAIR
A Tactical Retreat by the Maoists -- Ajit Kumar Singh, SAIR
Maoists: Deadly Arsenal -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
Maoism: Expansive Vision -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
Bihar & Jharkhand: Playground of the Maoists -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
Andhra Pradesh: Maoist Reverses… but will they last? -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
West Bengal: Polls Under a Maoist Shadow -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Maoist: The Truth Won't Go Away -- Ajai Sahni, SAIR
Orissa: Overrunning the State -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
'Misunderestimating' the Maoist -- Ajai Sahni, SAIR
Chhattisgarh: Populist Follies, Confounded State -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
The Red Revolution's Economy -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
New Blood in a War Without End -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
The Shape of Things to Come -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
IMaoist Flowering Under benign Neglect -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Realities of a Peaceful Election -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
Red Spred Over Jharkhand -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Dangers of Vigilantism -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Bitter Fruits of a False Peace -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
West Bengal: Naxalbari Redux -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
Uproar in the South, Strike in the North -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
Terror on the Fringes -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
Reality Bites -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
Contagion in Orissa -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Back to square one… and worse -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
The Economy at Risk -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
What, Me Worry? -- Ajai Sahni & Saji Cherian, SAIR
Left Wing Extremist Consolidation Undermines Electoral Processes -- Sanjay K. Jha, SAIR
Qualified Gains against Terror --K P S Gill, SAIR
Maoist Insurgencies: The Eclipse of Governance - Ajai Sahni , SAIR
While We Were Sleeping -- Ajai Sahni, SAIR
A Compact of Fire -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Bad Medicine for a Red Epidemic -- Ajai Sahni, SAIR
Unprincipled Peace, Expanding Violence -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Another Throw of the Dice -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Tactical Harakiri -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
Left Wing Rampage -- Saji Cherian, SAIR
Emerging Co-operation Against Maoist Subversion-- P G Rajamohan, SAIR
Synchronized Onslaught -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Maoist Incursions across Open Borders --P G Rajamohan, SAIR
Democracy vs. 'People's War' -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Violence Without End -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Vigilantes in a Cycle of Violence -- Nihar Nayak, SAIR
Growing Concern -- Sanjay K Jha, SAIR
The MCC in Bihar and Jharkhand -- Sanjay K Jha, SAIR
A Blow to the Bastion, but Naxalites Still a Force -- P.V. Ramana, SAIR
The Compact Revolutionary Zone -- Sanjay K. Jha, SAIR
Jharkhand: Leftist Carnage -- Sanjay K. Jha, SAIR
Expanding Left-Wing Violence -- Sanjay K. Jha, SAIR
Bihar: The Privatisation of Terror -- Sanjay K. Jha, SAIR
The Maoist Maze -- Sanjay K. Jha, SAIR
A False Peace and More Violence -- Sanjay K. Jha, SAIR
Maoists in Orissa: Growing Tentacles and a Dormant State -- Nihar Nayak, Faultlines
Naxalism: Retreat of civil Governance -- Ajai Sahni, Faultlines